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January 26, 2023

Census 2021: Resident population of Romania counts for 19.05 million people, process of demographic aging deepens

The resident population of Romania counted for 19.05 million people, of which 9.8 million were female, representing 51.5 pct, according to the first provisional data for the Population and Housing Census, round 2021, the National Institute of Statistics announced on Friday.

9.941 million people live in the urban environment, representing 52.2 pct of the total population.

INS reveals that the process of demographic aging has deepened, compared to 10 years ago (2011 census), noting the increase in the share of the elderly population (65 years and over).

The demographic aging index depreciated by almost 20 percentage points, increasing to 121.2 elderly people per 100 young people (Census 2021) compared to 101.8 (Census 2011). Although the number of young people (under 15 years old) decreased by 115,700 people, their share in the total population rose slightly to 16.1 pct (compared to 15.9 pct in Census 2011), while the share of the population aged 65 and over in total population registered an increase of almost half a million people, respectively by 3.5 percentage points (from 16.1 pct at Census 2011 to 19.6 pct at Census 2021).

Thus, the demographic dependency ratio increased within a decade from 47 (Census 2011) to 55.5 young and elderly persons per 100 adults (at Census 2021).

Compared to the estimated target population for the reference moment of the census, namely December 1, 2021, the provisional resident population is higher by only 30,000 people (respectively by only 0.2 pct more).

Compared to the resident population recorded in the previous census (Census 2011), Romania lost 1.1 million inhabitants. Out of 42 counties (including the municipality of Bucharest), 39 lost the number of inhabitants. The exceptions are the county of Ilfov, which gained 153,900 people, but also the counties of Bistrita-Nasaud and Suceava, which gained 9,800 and 7,700 inhabitants, respectively.

In relative terms, the largest population reductions were recorded by the counties of Caras-Severin (-16.6 pct, respectively with 49,000 fewer people) and Teleorman (-14.9 pct, respectively with 56,600 fewer people). In absolute terms, the municipality of Bucharest recorded the largest population loss, of 166,400 people (-8.8 pct), followed by the counties of Prahova (-67,800, representing 8.9 pct) and Dolj (-61,100, representing 9.3 pct).

Information on ethnicity was available for 16.5 million people (out of the total of 19.05 million people who make up the resident population of Romania). 14.8 million people (89.3 pct) declared themselves Romanian. The ethnic Hungarian population recorded in the census was 1.002 million people (6 pct), and the number of those who declared themselves Roma was 569,500 people (3.4 pct). The ethnic groups for which more than 20,000 people were registered are: Ukrainians (45,800 people), Germans (22,900 people) and Turks (20,900 people).

According to the free declaration of the 16.551 million people who declared their mother tongue, the structure of the population according to their mother tongue is presented as follows: for 91.6 pct, Romanian is the first language usually spoken in the family during childhood, and in the case of 6,3 pct of people speak Hungarian as their mother tongue; the Romanian language was the mother tongue for 1.2 pct, and the Ukrainian language for 0.2 pct of the total resident population for which this information was available.

The confessional structure was declared by 16.397 million people from the total resident population and shows that 85.3 pct of the people who declared their religion are of the Orthodox religion; 4.5 pct declared themselves Roman Catholic, 3 pct Reformed, and 2.5 pct Pentecostal. Weights between 0.4 pct – 0.8 pct were recorded by the following religions: Greek-Catholic (0.7 pct), Baptist (0.6 pct), and Seventh-day Adventist and Muslim 0.4 pct each. A percentage of 0.9 pct of the total population declared themselves “no religion” or atheists or agnostics.

Almost half of the resident population (47.9 pct) includes people who have the legal marital status to marry. 4.495 million men and 4.629 million women are married. Two out of five people have never been married, and widows represent 5.2 pct of the total resident population.

Of the total resident population, 43.5 pct have an average level of education (post-secondary, high-school, professional or technical foreman), 40.5 pct a low level (primary, secondary school or no graduated school) and 16 pct a higher level. In Census 2021, 143,600 people were illiterate (compared to 245,400 in Census 2011).

The active population is 8.185 million people, consisting of 7.689 million employed people and 496,100 unemployed. The inactive population includes 10.868 million people, of which pensioners and social aid beneficiaries represent two fifths (39.5 pct), and pupils and students almost a third (32 pct).

Census 2021 was the 13th census in history and the first in Romania organized entirely in digital format. The entire process of data collection took place with the assurance of confidentiality and full protection of information, Agerpres informs.

“The National Institute of Statistics together with its territorial structures would like to thank the population of Romania who participated in large numbers in the review process. This action took place in optimal conditions with the support of the Special Telecommunications Service (STS) which provided technical and operational support. The Census it also enjoyed the active support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MAI) as well as that of the town halls,” the INS press release also states.

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